Ursula Agnes Kaveney
dau. to Arthur Kaveney and Grace Lillian Hunt.
Grace Lillian Hunt, b. 1889 Leicester – d. 1974 Bishops Stortford
Youngest dau. to Thomas Bernard Hunt and Ellen Taylor (1858-1896).
- Ernest Bernard Hunt 1876-1937
- Agnes Gertrude Hunt 1877-
- Edith Annie Hunt 1878-1953
- Florence Georgina Hunt 1880-1965
- Bertha Nellie Hunt 1880-1960
- Emma Theresa Hunt 1881-1955
- Henry Alphonsus Hunt 1885-1956 (Monsignor Hunt)
- Grace Lilian Hunt 1889-1974
After the death of Ellen Taylor in 1896, T.B. Hunt remarried in 1897 to his second wife Alice Elizabeth Raby. They had three further children.
Alice Elizabeth Raby, b.1860 Leicester, d. 1933 Leicester.
dau. to Jane Raby.
m. 1897, Thomas Bernard Hunt. Step-mother to Grace.
- Bernard Leo Hunt 1899
- Margaret E Hunt 1899–1973 (Ursuline Convent, Forest Gate, London)
- Winifred Jane Hunt 1901 – 1980
Aged 8 when her father remarried, Grace knew Alice as her mother for a considerable part of her childhood years and grew up with her half-siblings from Thomas and Alice’s marriage. Two of her own daughters to Arthur Kaveney are later named Margaret (Meg) and Winifred (Winnie).
Birth, 1860 Leicester.
Birth certificate for Alice:
Registration District of Leicester, 1860 Birth in sub-district of East Leicester.
|When and where born:||First November 1860; 150 Wharf Street|
|Name and Surname of father:||–|
|Occupation of father:||–|
|Sig. description and residence of informant:||Jane Raby, mother, 150 Wharf Street, Leicester|
|When registered:||Seventh November 1860|
Alice is recorded in the following census entries prior to her marriage to T.B. Hunt:
1861, 23 Grafton Place, Leicester.
|Jane Raby||Head||unmarried||age 32||b. 1829||Warwick||Dressmaker|
|John T Raby||Son||-||age 9||b. 1852||Nottingham||Scholar|
|Alice E Raby||Daughter||–||age 5 ms||b. 1860||Leicester||-|
1871, 40 Watling Street, Leicester.
|Jane Raby||head||unmarried||age 42||b. 1829||Leicester||Dame School|
|John Raby||son||unmarried||age 19||b. 1852||Leicester||Rail Porter|
|Alice Raby||dau.||unmarried||age 9||b. 1862||Leicester||Scholar|
|Albert Raby||son||–||age 5||b. 1866||Leicester||-|
Living with Jane and her family are Jane’s siblings. This helps identify her family group and later her parents:
|Richard Raby||brother||unmarried||age 37||b. 1834||Leicester||Mechanic|
|Alice Raby||sister||unmarried||age 39||b. 1832||Leicester||-|
|George Raby||brother||unmarried||age 34||b. 1837||Leicester||Mechanic|
1881, 56 Mostyn St. Leicester.
|Jane Rabey||head||unmarried||age 52||b.1829||Warwickshire||Hosiery Hand|
|John T. Rabey||son||unmarried||age 29||b. 1852||Nottinghamshire||Warehouseman|
|Alice E. Rabey||dau.||unmarried||age 20||b. 1861||Leicestershire|| Laundry
|Albert W. Rabey||son||unmarried||age 15||b. 1866||Leicestershire|| Porter in
1884, brother Albert dies.
1891, 5 Wilne Street, St Margaret, Leicester.
|Jane Raby||Head||single||age 62||b. 1829||Warwickshire||Shirt maker.|
|Alice Raby||sister||single||age 59||b. 1832||Leicestershire||-|
|Richard Raby||brother||single||age 57||b. 1834||Leicestershire||Mechanic (assistant)|
|John Thos Raby||son||single||age 39||b. 1852||Nottinghamshire||Warehouseman|
|Alice E Raby||daughter||single||age 29||b. 1862||Leicestershire||Fancy Hosiery|
Jane Raby (b. 1829 Warwickshire)
dau. to William Raby and Elizabeth
Jane Raby is recorded as having three children.
- John Thomas Raby 1852–
- Alice Elizabeth Raby 1860-1933
- Albert William Raby 1865–1884
From the census information for Alice it’s seen that Jane was born 1829 in Warwickshire (allowing for the 1871 census being in error) and that she had siblings Alice b. 1832 Leicester, Richard b. 1834 in Leicester and George b. 1837 in Leicester. She is listed as unmarried.
Searching for this family group of siblings on census records before 1861 the following appear:
1841, Mansfield St., St Margaret with Bishops Fee, Leicester
|William Raby||age 45||b.1796||not in Leicestershire||Iron Turner|
|Elizebeth [sic] Raby||age 45||b.1796||not in Leicestershire||-|
|Jane Raby||age 13||b.1828||not in Leicestershire||-|
|Alice Raby||age 10||b.1831||Leicestershire||-|
|George Raby||age 6||b.1835||Leicestershire||-|
|Richard Raby||age 6||b.1835||Leicestershire||-|
|Martha Raby||age 65||b.1776||not in Leicestershire||-|
1851, 20 Mansfield Street Leicester.
|William Raby||Head||married||age 56||b.1795||Manchester, Lancashire||Engineer|
|Elizabeth Raby||Wife||married||age 57||b.1794||Bascote, Warwickshire||-|
|Jane Raby||Daughter||single||age 23||b.1828||Warwick, Warwickshire||Dress maker|
|Alice Raby||Daughter||single||age 20||b.1831||Leicester||-|
|Richard Raby||Son||single||age 17||b.1834||Leicester||Bobin polisher|
|George Raby||Son||single||age 14||b.1837||Leicester||-|
1861, 23 Grafton Place Leicester. See Alice Raby for census.
1866, Christening of Albert William “England, Births and Christenings, 1538-1975,” index,
|name:||Albert William Raby|
|baptism/christening date:||26 Aug 1866|
|baptism/christening place:||SAINT GEORGE, LEICESTER, LEICESTER, ENGLAND|
|father's name:||William Manton Raby|
Source: FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/J7MY-MK)
It is not clear if the father’s name is genuinely “William Manton Raby” since Jane Raby is unmarried or that the name is “William Manton” and “Raby” is included because she is unmarried. Birth certificate required.
1871, 40 Watling Street, Leicester. See Alice Raby for census.
1881, 56 Mostyn St. Leicester. See Alice Raby for census.
1891, 5 Wilne Street, St Margaret, Leicester. See Alice Raby for census.
1901, 5 Wilne Street, St Margaret, Leicester.
The entry appears to be incorrect in that the enumerator may have confused Jane’s son John as the head of the house and then duplicated his entry. The marital status for “Jane” is changed from “M” (married) to “unmarr” or “widow” but it is not clear:
|John T Raby
|Head||[unlcear]||age 73||b. 1828||Warwickshire||-|
|John T Raby||Son||single||age 49||b. 1852||Nottingham||Railway goods porter.|
|Alice Raby||Sister||single||age 63||b. 1838||Leicester||–|
1907, An England and Wales Death Index
Entry for Q3 1907 lists a Jane Raby b. c. 1830 dying in Leicestershire. Certificate required.
Other clues for Jane.
A search of the Warwickshire, England, Baptisms, 1813-1910 sourced from Warwickshire Anglican Registers. Warwick, England: Warwickshire County Record Office provides a record for the baptism of Jane Raby:
|Parish:||Warwick, St Mary|
|Baptism Date:||5 May 1829|
|Father's Name:||William Raby|
|Mother's Name:||Elizabeth Raby|
In addition to this the registers provide another, earlier, child, Helen Raby:
|Parish:||Warwick, St Mary|
|Baptism Date:||24 Sep 1826|
|Father's Name:||William Raby|
|Mother's Name:||Elizabeth Raby|
|Father's Occupation:||Iron Turner|
The entries ties Helen and Jane together with their residence as Saltisford (Warwickshire) and William’s profession as “Iron Turner”/Engineer, which fits with Jane’s father’s occupation in the 1841 and 1851 census above but also for the information about William Raby below.
William Raby b. 1794-6 Lancashire – 1868 Leicester.
son of Martha (Raby), assumed.
m. 1825 Elizabeth Ducket , Warwick
Helen Raby, 1826 Saltisford Warwickshire
Jane Raby, 1829 Saltisford Warwickshire
Alice Raby, c.1831, Leicester
Richard Raby, 1834, Leicester
George Raby, c.1837, Leicester
It might be assumed that Martha in the 1841 census is William’s mother being some 30 years his elder and unlikely to be a sister. The details of 1841 census did not include relationships so it is not impossible that she is some other relation.
1825 Oct 28, St Mary, Warwick
A record in the Warwickshire, England, Marriages and Banns, 1754-1910 can be found for:
“William Raby, bachelor, of this parish St Mary, Warwick and Elizabeth Duckett spinster of this parish were married in this Church by License with consent of [blank] this twenty eighth day of October in the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty five by me John Boudier Vicar. This marriage was solemnized between us William Raby signed Elizabeth Duckett her mark in presence of John (Southy) Martha (Southy)”
This in itself does not help provide a relationship since it does not place this William as born in Lancashire, however it is known that Jane Raby’s younger sister in 1826 and then Jane herself in 1829 were christened in this church to parents William and Elizabeth Raby. See baptism records.
The 1841, 1851 censuses (above) and 1861 census (below) entries confirm this relationship and places of birth for William in Manchester, Lancashire and Elizabeth in Bascote Warwickshire. So it would seem William Raby moved from Lancashire to Warwickshire where he married Elizabeth, had two daughters and then they moved to Leicester.
1841, Mansfield St., St Margaret with Bishops Fee, Leicester: see Jane Raby for census.
1851, 20 Mansfield Street Leicester: see Jane Raby for census.
1861, 20 Mansfield Street, Leicester:
|William Raby||Head||age 67||b.1794||Manchester||Engineer|
|Elizth Raby||Wife||age 68||b.1793||Bascote Warwickshire||-|
|Alice Raby||Daughter||age 30||b.1831||Leicester||House Servant|
|Richard Raby||Son||age 27||b.1834||Leicester||Engine Feeder|
|George Raby||Son||age 23||b.1838||Leicester||Wood and Iron Turner|
1861-1868 wife Elizabeth dies, see William’s Probate record below.
An England and Wales Death Index entry for Q2 1868 lists an Elizabeth Raby b. 1793 dying in Cambridgeshire. Certificate required, Cambridge has not been related to before.
1868 Dec 12, Leicester, William died.
William Raby’s probate (England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858-1966) reads:
“RABY William. 19 January. Letters of Administration of the Personal estate and effects of William Raby late of Leicester in the County of Leicester Engineer a Widower deceased who died 12 December 1868 at Leicester to Richard Raby of Watling Street Leicester aforesaid Mechanic the Son and one of the Next of Kin of the said Deceased he having first sworn. Effects under £300.”
1871, Alice, Richard and George are recorded on the census living with their sister Jane Raby (as Head). See Alice Raby, dau. to Jane, above.
1881, 40 Watling Street, Leicester
|Richard Raby||Head||single||age 47||b.1834||Leicester||Mechanic (Spinning)|
|Alice Raby||Sister||single||age 49||b.1832||Leicester||Laundress|
1881, 5 Grafton Place, Leicester.
George is married to Sarah Ann Ellis (ne Neal) who already has a family.
|George Raby||Head||Married||age 44||b.1837||Leicestershire||Mechanic Cotton Works|
|Sarah Ann Raby||Wife||Married||age 46||b.1835||Leicestershire|| Fancy Box Maker
|Elizabeth Ann Ellis Neal||Daughter in Law||single||age 15||b.1866||Leicestershire|| Counter Hand
|Lucy Ellis Neal||Daughter in Law||single||age 13||b.1868||Leicestershire|| Fancy Box Maker
|Fredr. Mark Ellis Neal||Son in Law||single||age 9||b.1872||Leicestershire||Scholar|
1891, again Alice and Richard live with Jane and her family. See Alice Raby, dau. to Jane, above.
1894, England & Wales, FreeBMD Death Index, 1837-1915 has a death for Richard Raby, Q4 1898 in Leicester. (Leicester, p.150). Cerificate required.
1901, Alice lives with Jane. See Jane Raby above.
William and Martha Raby
Turning to where William descended from, the information at hand can be summarized as:
Born William Raby, probably to a mother named Martha, in Lancashire, probably Manchester and from census ages, sometime 1794-1796. He has an ‘engineering’ background.
A search of birth records for births of a child “Raby”, Lancashire about this period provides the following results among others:
|1792||John Raby||22 April 1792||Blackburn, Lancashire, England||William Raby||Martha|
|*1794||William Rabecy||13 July 1794||CATHEDRAL,MANCHESTER,LANCASHIRE,ENGLAND||Willm. Rabecy||Martha|
|1802||John Raby||30 May 1802||SAINT FRANCIS AND HILL CHAPEL-RC,GOOSNARGH,LANCASHIRE,ENGLAND||William Raby||Martha|
|1804||Ann Raby||30 May 1802||SAINT FRANCIS AND HILL CHAPEL-RC,GOOSNARGH,LANCASHIRE,ENGLAND||William Raby||Martha|
Source: https://familysearch.org/ “England Births and Christenings, 1538-1975″
*Although the spelling in the transcription records appears wrong in the 1794 record for William Rabecy, this is not an uncommon error and in some sources marked questionable because of legibility. It is not unlikely then that this is William Raby son of Martha.
If this is the case then it also provides us with William’s father who is also named William Raby.
See also the entry here for a John Raby b. 1792, Blackburn.
1792 Pallot’s Marriage Index for England 1780-1837, Lancashire Marriage records and Banns records all have entries for the marriage of a William Raby of Blackburn, a joiner to Martha Physic of Tatham 24th March 1792 in Tatham Lancashire. In the presence of James Smith and Richard Raby (see also Richard Raby, below).
1773, Lancashire, England, Baptisms, Marriages and Burials, 1538-1812, provides an entry for Martha’s birth in the parish records of Tatham:
Christening 1773. Martha daughter of Henry Physick, baptised 17th January.
Martha, and so possibly her husband William, also lived in Leicester according to the 1841 census. Not knowing when they moved, a search for children born in Leicestershire on the off-chance they had children there, provides the following entries for children of William and Martha Raby:
|1812||Winifred Raby||10 January 1812||16 February 1812: SAINT MARY DE CASTRO,LEICESTER,LEICESTER, ENGLAND||Wm. Raby||Martha|
|1817||James Raby||-||26 October 1817: SAINT MARY DE CASTRO,LEICESTER,LEICESTER, ENGLAND||Wm. Raby||Martha|
Source: https://familysearch.org/ “England Births and Christenings, 1538-1975″
It should also be noted for the sake of completeness that there is also a record of a Winifred Raby born to a William and Martha Raby recorded in the “Warwickshire, England, Baptisms, Marriages, and Burials, 1535-1812″ at Bedworth, 19 Nov 1809. This is some 20 miles from Saltisford where son William and Elizabeth lived at the time of their first children, daughters Helen and Jane.
William and Martha probably had a daughter, Ann (1804-1831).
Leicester Journal – Friday 23 September 1831
On Sunday the 11th, Ann, second daughter of Mr. William Raby, of this town, aged 27. She had been afflicted with dropsy for eight years, during which period she had been tapped many times. She died quite resigned to the will of her Creator, on whom she fully relied.
This also provides space for at least one other child, a daughter between the son William b. 1794, if not before him, and Ann b. 1804 as the ‘second daughter’.
1839, England & Wales, FreeBMD Death Index, 1837-1915 has a death for William Raby, Q1 1839 in Leicester. (Leicester, p.61)
1841, Martha appears on the census in her son William’s household, Mansfield St., St Margaret with Bishops Fee, Leicester: see Jane Raby for census.
1851, no census record found for Martha Raby born in Lancashire but there is a record of Martha Raby born Todmorden, Yorkshire living at93 Welford Road, Leicester.
|Martha Raby||Head||Widow||aged 77||b.1774||Todmordon, Yorkshire, England||Pauper|
|Kezia Miller||Lodger||Widow||aged 68||b.1783||Stoke Golding, Leicestershire||Pauper|
Pauper normally meaning “supported by parish charity”
This entry, seemingly, if correct, likely casts a previously strong candidate for Martha Physic into some doubt. Perhaps the enumerator misheard “Tatham” for “Todmorden”? However, later facts and relationship events provide still strong evidence that this line for William and Martha remains correct.
1855, England & Wales, FreeBMD Death Index, 1837-1915 has a death for Martha Raby, Q3 1855 in Leicester. (Leicester, p.84)
The 1794 Christening record of William Rabecy, is not evidence in itself that these are the same William and Martha Raby parents to the William Raby, father of Jane.
It’s now necessary to make a diversion and look at another resident of Leicester, Richard Raby.
Taking these records in the whole it is possible to build a possible picture of a family unit being:
- William Raby a joiner of Blackburn, Lancs m. 1792 to Martha Raby of Tatham, Lancs. Martha lives with son William in Leicester and later dies there.
- Son John born 1792 in Blackburn.
- Son William born 1794 Manchester. m. Elizabeth Duckett,in Warwickshire. Parents of Jane Raby. Return to Leicester.
- Dau. Unknown name born before Ann in 1804.
- Dau. Ann born Lancashire or Leicester 1804. Dies 1831 Leicester.
- At some point between 1794-1812 William and Martha move to Leicester.
- Dau. Winifred born 1812 Leicester.
- Son James born 1817 Leicester.
Also recall that William and Martha’s marriage witness included a Richard Raby. This is likely to be William’s brother as might be shown below, although it is now necessary to make a small diversion.
Returning to the family of Thomas Bernard Hunt it is important to know that his marriage to Ellen Taylor was in Holy Cross Church Leicester – the “Roman Catholic Chapel” in Leicester.
In early the 19th century Roman Catholicism was still somewhat stigmatised even though penal laws were beginning to be relaxed. The Roman Catholic Relief Act of 1829 removed the most substantial restrictions on Roman Catholicism that existed in the United Kingdom. It was common in times before T.B.’s marriage to Ellen Taylor for Roman Catholics to marry in both Church of England and Catholic ceremonies. By 1875 when they married, emancipation of Catholics had occurred and with civil registration, Catholic marriages and baptisms took place more freely. However, before this though, with T.B. Hunt’s, Ellen Taylor’s and Alice Raby’s own families, Established Church ceremonies did not necessarily demonstrate the religious persuasion of the individuals. Thomas, Ellen and Alice demonstrate their Catholicism in their marriage ceremonies.
Turning to the Raby’s in Leicester, in particular with respect to Catholicism we find reference to a Richard Raby. Various sources cite one Richard Raby as a prominent member of Leicester society and influential in the Catholic community.
A History of the County of Leicester: volume 4 – The City of Leicester
…In 1798, under Father Francis Xavier Chappell O.P., the first permanent chapel, dedicated to St. Michael, was established on the upper floor of a building in an entry off Causeway Lane. Considerable secrecy was always preserved about its exact whereabouts. Services were held there until 1850. The building remained in existence until 1939, as part of a factory. Early in the 19th century masses were said in a warehouse belonging to Richard Raby, a prominent Leicester Roman Catholic, near the old Vauxhall gardens; it seems that the Causeway Lane chapel had become too small to house the growing Roman Catholic population which sprang up probably as the result of the establishment of the permanent chapel.
In 1815 Father Benedict Caestryck O.P. came to Leicester as head of the Dominican mission and during his period of office the first church of Holy Cross was built. The land was given by Richard Raby, and lay between New Walk and Wellington Street. The red brick church was begun in 1817 to the designs of Joseph Ireland. It was very small, having neither chancel nor Lady chapel, and no priory buildings were erected until 1824, when Father Caestryck built a house for the priest to the south-east. The chancel and Lady chapel were built in 1848. In 1861 the quadrangle formed by the church and the priory buildings was completed in its present form [continues]
Richard Raby (the Elder), b. 1774 d. 1837
From the history of Catholicism in Leicester it appears Richard Raby was a successful businessman in the town in the early part of the 19th century and this provides a number of clues as to his origins and background. Principally he his a worsted spinner from Lancashire who establishes a successful business in Leicester but tragedy strikes his family.
Move from Preston after 1796
Preston Chronicle and Lancashire Advertiser, CORRESPONDENCE – Saturday 02 October 1852
PRESTON MORE THAN FORTY-THREE YEARS AGO 
TO THE EDITOR OF THE PRESTON CHRONICLE.
Sir,- I was much interested in reading your paper entitled “Preston Forty-three Years ago,” and can fully confirm what Preston was at the period referred to. My recollection carried me back to the year 1796, when the father of the present Earl of Derby was first elected M.P. for the borough. At that time the Market-place, with two or three exceptions, was composed of places of business. These exceptions were the residences of E. Pedder, Esq., adjoining the Cross Keys Inn, and that of Mr. Alderman Fisher, at the corner of New-street. The alderman was a retired watchmaker, and somewhat of a pedagogue in his way; his precise but incorrect mode of pronouncing certain words, especially America, which he called Ameri-ca, earned for him the cognomen of “Judge Fisher.” The principle tradesman of the Market-place then was Mr. Richard Atherton (father-in-law of Sir Jas. Allan Parke), who bought the Greenbank estate, and built thereon a neat residence, surrounded with gardens and shrubberies, which he had laid out in a tasteful manner. Spittal’s Moss was then a waste piece of ground. Mr. John Horrocks having, however, erected a cotton factory thereon, streets of houses sprung up, and the spot became a colony for his workpeople. The building of this factory was followed by others in the same immediate locality, principally by the same enterprising individual, and by Messrs. Ryley and Paley. There was also a worsted factory built in the same neighbourhood, by a Mr. Barrow, who had for his partner Mr. Richard Raby; but the concern not answering, it was given up, and Mr. Raby removed to Leicester, where he successfully conducted a similar business for many years. […Continues…] Hoping these rough notes may prove interesting to your readers, though penned by a native, who has been a non-resident freeman for more than forty years, I subscribe myself,
Your constant and A PRESTONIAN. September 29, 1852
1804. It seems from the following article in 1804 that the partnership mentioned in the 1852 article above might be a second partnership from a former one dissolved in 1804, since this notice mentions a third partner, although he may just have been omitted from recollection by the correspondent.
Lancaster Gazette – Saturday 11 February 1804
NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN, THAT the PARTNERSHIP lately subsisting between THOMAS BARROW, JAMES MACNEAL, and RICHARD RABY, all of Preston in the county of Lancaster, worsted-spinners, under the firm of Messrs. BARROW, MACNEAL, and RABY was DISSOLVED on the 22d [sic] day of DECEMBER last, by mutual consent : And that the business will, in future, be carried on by the said THOMAS BARROW and RICHARD RABY only, who are duly authorised to receive and discharge all debts belonging the late co-partnership. Dated the 2d [sic] day of February, in the year of our Lord 1804. THOMAS BARROW, JAMES MACNEAL, RICHARD RABY. Witness:- H.DEWHURST.
1807. Without notices about the second partnership, it seems that Richard moved to Leicester sometime after 1804 and before 1814 when another notice appears for company partnership dissolution in Leicester. However, an article in the Lancaster Gazette suggests he had an interest in Lancashire at least until 1807.
Lancaster Gazette – Saturday 24 October 1807
TO BE SOLD BY AUCTION,
At the house of Mr. ISAAC ROBINSON, the Mitre Inn, in Lancaster, on Friday the 30th day of October inst. at six o’clock in the evening;
ALL that FREEHOLD CLOSE of GROUND, known by the name of MILL FIELD, situate at Skerton, near Lancaster, adjoining Skerton Green; containing, by admeasurement, [2??? S1p]. statute measure, and now in the occupation of Richard Raby. For further particulars apply to Mr. PARK, solicitor, Lancaster. LANCASTER, OCT 8, 1807.
1814. Dissolution of partnership in Leicester.
Leicester Journal – Friday 15 April 1814
NOTICE is hereby given, that in the partnership trade of Worsted Spinners, carried on in the Borough of Leicester, in the County of Leicestershire, under the firm of RICHARD RABY and Co. [??] Richard Raby, of the Borough of Leicester aforesaid, Worsted Spinner, and John Carr, of the City of Coventry, watchmaker, was this day dissolved by mutual consent, as and from the 31st of December last. All persons indebted to the said co-partnership trade, are requested to pay their respective debts to the said Richard Raby, who is duly authorized to receive the same; and all persons having any claim or demand upon the said co-partnership trade, are desired to apply to the said Richard Raby for payment thereof. As witness our hands this 28th day of March, 1814. RICHARD RABY. JOHN CARR. Witness hereto. – Mark Pea[s]man.
1815 m. Elizabeth Walker b. 1779, d. 1855 Munich
Either, through maintaining contact with the North West, perhaps by visits to family or on business, or perhaps even through an already established relationship before he left for Leicester, Richard married, in Preston a year later.
Leicester Journal – Friday 20 January 1815
January 20, 1815 MARRIED
On the 17th instant, at Preston, in Lancashire, Mr. Richard Raby, super worsted manufacturer of this town, to Miss E. Walker of the former place.
Lancaster Gazette – Saturday 28 January 1815
.. On Monday se’nnight [i.e. last week], Mr Richard Raby, of Leicester, to Miss Walker, of Preston, milliner.
1816. Birth of son Richard (the Younger).
1818. Birth of son John.
1821. Birth of only daughter Eliza. See death notice of Eliza below, 1855.
Various trade journals and index references provide continuous evidence of business:
Publication Title: 1822 Pigot’s Directory Norfolk, Leicestershire and Rutland plus Peterborough and Wisbech. p. 216
Name: Richard Raby
Street Address: Bath-gardens [Leicster]
Entry: Manufacturers of Hosiery (Imitation Knit)
Publication Title: 1828 Pigot’s Directory of Leicestershire
Name: Richard Raby
Street Address: Bath gardens, Leicester
Entry: Worsted Spinners
1829 Richard supports Catholic Emancipation.
Leicester Chronicle – Saturday 21 February 1829
PUBLIC MEETING, ON THE SUBJECT OF CATHOLIC EMANCIPATION.
A REQUISITION (of which the following is a Copy) having been sent to the Mayor, & he having declined to comply therewith, we, whose names are attached thereto, hereby give notice, the a PUBLIC MEETING for the purposes stated in the Requisition will be held on MONDAY Next, February 23, at the BELL HOTEL. The Chair will be taken at twelve precisely.
Copy of the Requisition.
TO JAMES RAWSON, Esq. MAYOR OF THE BOROUGH OF LEICESTER.
We the undersigned request you will call a Meeting of the Inhabitants of the Town and Vicinity of Leicester, to take into consideration the propriety of addressing His Majesty or Petitioning either House of Parliament, in support of those Measures which His Majesty’s Ministers are about to submit to Parliament for the Emancipation of our Roman Catholic fellow subjects. 12th February.
[11 names], Richard Raby, [53 names]
1830. UK, Poll Books and Electoral Registers, 1538-1893. p 111
Name: Richard Raby
Place of Abode: Bath lane
Trade: Worsted Spinner
Kind of Freehold: House.
Poll Year: 1830
1835. A son to Richard can be identified through Articles of Clerkship.
302 Richd. Raby Junr. to Wm. Freer Filed this 27 day of February 1835.
In the King’s Bench
John Bass Hanbury of Leicester in the County of Leicester Gentleman maketh oath and saith that by Articles of Agreement indented bearing date the eighteenth of this instant February and made between William Freer of Leicester aforesaid Gentleman on of the Attornies of His Majesty’s Court of King’s Bench at Westminster of the one part and Richard Raby the Younger of Leicester aforesaid Gentleman and Richard Raby the Elder of Leicester aforesaid Worsted Spinner ([sic]Father of the said Richard Raby the younger of the other part The said Richard Raby the Younger with the consent and approbation of the said Richard Raby the Elder did put and place and bind himself Clerk to the said William Freer to serve him in the practice and profession of an attorney at Law from the day of the date of the said Articles for and during and until the full end and term of five years from thenceforth next ensuring and fully to be complete and ended And [sic] the Richard Raby the Younger as his clerk accordingly.
And this Deponent further saith that the said Article [were] on the eighteenth of this Instant February (being the day they bear date) actually signed sealed and delivered and executed in due form of law by the said William Freer Richard Raby the Younger and Richard Raby the Elder in the presence of Francis Raby of Leicester aforesaid Worsted Spinner and that the several names “Willm. Freer” “Richard Raby Junr.” and “Richard Raby” set and subscribed opposite to the several seals affixed to the said Articles as the parties executing the same are of the respective hand writing of the said William Freer, Richard Raby the Younger and Richard Raby the Elder And that the names “J. Bass Hanbury” and “Francis Raby” set and subscribed as Witnesses to the due execution of the said Articles are of the proper hand writing of this Deponent and the said Francis Raby respectively. Sworn at Leicester aforesaid the twenty fifth day of February One thousand eight hundred and thirty five Before me
Source: The National Archives of the UK (TNA); Kew, Surrey, England; Court of King’s Bench: Plea Side: Affidavits of Due Execution of Articles of Clerkship, Series III; Class: KB 107; Piece: 1.
No other reference to Francis Raby has been found yet and so his relationship is not known.
1837. 27 January, Richard dies in Leicester.
Leicester Chronicle – Saturday 04 February 1837
FUNERAL OF THE LATE Mr. RABY. – The remains of Mr. Raby, of Bath-lane, were interred in a vault at the Catholic chapel, in Wellington-street, on Thursday last. He was followed to the grave by a large concourse of persons. Mr. Stone, his attorney, and Messrs. John and William Biggs, his executors, were present at the funeral; together with other gentlemen. The chapel was crowded to excess, and the Rev. Mr. Hulme pronounced an impressive oration over the tomb.
Preston Chronicle – Saturday 04 February 1837
On Friday, the 27th inst., much respected, aged 63, Mr. Richard Raby, worsted spinner, of Bath Lane, Leicester. Mr. Raby was a native of Lancashire, but had resided in Leicester about thirty years, and had been long celebrated for his superior manufacture of worsted. As a practical machinist he had few equals, and when a very young man, filled important situations in several of the most extensive manufactories [sic] in Lancashire. He was a man of enlarged benevolence, and his loss will be deeply deplored among the poor of the religious body (Roman Catholics) to which he belonged.
Married before the introduction of civil registration, there seems no civil records of children to Richard and Elizabeth and, suspecting their strong beliefs in their Catholic faith perhaps, there also as yet don’t appear to be any Anglican or non-Conformist parish records in Leicester either. And so the next document of use is Richards Will which is available from the National Archives.
1837. Will of Richard Raby, Worsted Spinner of Leicester , Leicestershire
Prerogative Court of Canterbury and related Probate Jurisdictions: Will Registers. Will of Richard Raby, Worsted Spinner of Leicester , Leicestershire.
Collection: Records of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury Date range: 07 April 1837 – 07 April 1837 Reference:PROB 11/1877/79 Subjects:Wills and probate.
This will confirms his wife as Elizabeth but also provides some additional information.
It provides also for:
… and I give unto my brother William Raby unto my Nephews William Raby and James Raby and my Nieces [Ann or Alice] Raby, Mary Raby and Winifred Raby the sum of one hundred pounds apiece[.] I give unto my brother John the sum of three hundred pounds and unto my Nephew Richard Raby and my Niece [Alice] Raby the sum of two hundred pounds each… unto my Nephew George Stephen [Moorby]
The reference to his brother William (i.e. William and Martha) and their children sons and nieces: William (known), James (known), Ann (known but died 1831 before will enacted?), Mary (unknown but possibly the missing elder sister to Ann) and Winifred brings the relationship into some clarity. It also links to another brother John, probably his children, RIchard’s other nephews and nieces.
1855. Death of daughter Eliza and wife Elizabeth Walker.
Leicester Chronicle – Saturday 14 April 1855
On Tuesday at the convent of the Order of St. Benedict, near Stone, Aulton, Staffordshire, Eliza, only daughter of the late Mr. Richard Raby, of this town, in her 34th year.
Leicester Chronicle – Saturday 17 November 1855
On the 8th inst., at Munich [see son Richard Raby], after a short illness, in her 76th year, Elizabeth relict [widow] of the late Mr Richard Raby, of Bath-place , in this town.
Summary of Richard and Elizabeth
Richard Raby 1774 – 1837
Elizabeth Walker 1799-1855 m. Preston 1815
Richard Raby 1816 – 1881
John Raby 1818 – 1837
(Unknown) Raby 1819 – (referenced by death notices of son John)
Eliza Raby 1821 – 1855
Richard Raby (the Younger) b. before 1818, probably 1816, Leicester, d. 1881 Munich, Bavaria, Germany
Son to Richard Raby (elder) and Elizabeth Walker
A succinct description of Richard Raby the Younger can be found here:
Gillow’s Biographical Dictionary of the English Catholics
Raby, Richard born 1818, eldest son of Richard Raby, of Bath Place, Leicester, woollen manufacturer, and of his wife, Elizabeth, was educated at Stonyhurst, whither he went Sept. 2 5, 1829. Some years after his father’s death, in 1837, he left Leicester, and settled at Munich, Bavaria, where he engaged in professional and literary pursuits. He died there, Aug. 3, 1881, aged 63.
1829-1831. Stonyhurst, Lancashire.
Stonyhurst College, Clitheroe, Lancashire is a Roman Catholic Jesuit college that, in 1794, moved to England from the continent as other Catholic colleges did at various times. This places links to both the religious faith of Richard’s family but also his roots back to Lancashire through his father. The archivist at Stonyhurst, David Knight, has been kind enough to confirm that Richard entered the school on 25 September 1829 (aged 11, by calculation) and left on 4 August 1831 (aged 14, by calculation).
However, there is no more detail on record and there is only Gillow’s reference to a birth year at this time. Later, reporting on his younger brother’s untimely death in 1837, he describes him, John, as just turned 19, this would make almost a twin which is unlikely as there is no reference to this obvious situation. So it is more likely Richard the Younger was born before 1818, or he got his brother’s age wrong.
1835. Richard the Younger is indentured to William Freer as a legal clerk for five years. It isn’t known if he completed his apprenticeship.
1837. February, death of father, Richard Raby the Elder.
1837. September, death of brother, John Raby.
1837. 30 September. Letter to Leicester Mercury in defence of Roman Catholicism.
Leicestershire Mercury – Saturday 30 September 1837
TO THE EDITOR OF THE LEICESTER MERCURY.
Dear Sir,- A person adopting the signature of Philoveritas took upon himself in last week’s ‘Journal’ to remark on a recent letter of mine in reply to a malicious and disgraceful attack made on the Catholic body and Pastor in this town, With the accustomed audacity of his party he quietly professes to rid himself of my observations as a tissue of “turgid declamation” having no “point or purpose” and without “one substantive proposition” fit only to be passed over in silence, and so forthwith proceeds to refer to a former letter of his totally unknown to me in which he ably argues that the Catholic Religion is not a religion of conscience and that it possesses no charitable benevolence, which allegations he avers [sic] neither I nor any one professing my creed has been able to disprove. [continues]
1837. 21st October. Letter to Leicester Mercury in defence of Roman Catholicism.
Leicestershire Mercury, 21st Oct 1837
Sir, -Whoever you are, under an ungenerous disguise, have made it your business to fasten upon me at a time when I deemed myself called upon to vindicate my religion from cowardly and pointed slanders which, especially when the occasion is considered, were a sad reflection on the individual from whom they emanated, and which to my knowledge were a source of the deepest disgust to many respectable and honest members of the church you profess to advocate…[continues]
1839. 18th January. Repeal of the Corn Laws.
Leicester Journal – Friday 18 January 1839
To Thomas Stokes, Esq. Mayor.
WE, the undersigned, respectfully request you convene a Public Meeting of the Inhabitants of this Borough, to consider the propriety of petitioning both Houses Parliament for repeal of the Corn Laws.
… Richard Raby …
In compliance with the above requisition, I hereby appoint Public Meeting of the Inhabitants of this Borough, to be held at the Town Hall, Monday the 27th day January instant, Six o’clock in the evening. Thos. Stokes, Mayor. Leicester, January , 1839.
1839. 08 February. Response in the Leicester Journal.
Leicester Journal – Friday 08 February 1839
In another portion of our journal, will found a letter, signed by Mr. R. Raby, professedly in reply to observations ours upon the Roman Catholic Institute, and the religion established to promote. A perusal of that letter by any of our readers will convince them that it is not necessary for us to offer any lengthened comment upon its tenor. Its only apparent object is criticise the literature and style argument adopted in these columns, in reference to the Popish Creed. Our readers will estimate Mr. Raby’s critical powers at their proper value, and they will judge something of his good taste and powers of argument from the style of his letter have nothing to do with either. [continues]
1839. 22 February
Leicester Journal – Friday 22 February 1839
Mr. RABY—The CATHOLIC INSTITUTE AMBROSE LISLE PHILLIPPS,Esq., BRITANNICUS.
Sir, The state of my health has, for some time, obliged to refrain from engaging either in political or theological discussion—although distressed, almost agonised at the wreckless and unceasing attempts, which are daily made, to destroy the sacred Institutions of our country.
But I was effectually roused from somewhat necessary state repose, by the letter of a Mr. Raby, inserted your last week’s Journal, who ventured to attack certain observations which you had made a Roman Catholic Institution, entitled The Catholic Institute.” Had Mr. Raby’s letter been signed “Rabid,” the epithet would, in some measure, have justly characterised the composition.
1843. 3rd February. In defence of Catholicism.
Leicester Journal, 3rd Feb 1843
In spite of Mr. Richard Raby’s severe flagellation, we advise Mr. Mursell to proceed with bis subject, heedless of the ‘ eye’ or the * tail’ of the • greatest patriot of modern times.’
The following extract from Mr. Raby’s recently published letter to Mr. Mursill, ‘on certain passages of his Thoughts on Ireland,’ certainly exhibits great soreness on the part of the Roman Catholic community ; we confess, however, that we cannot sympathise with them, particularly since they have aided and abetted in the abuse which some the dissenters have, for the last few years, been lavishing on the Church England. [continues]
1843. 10 February. Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society
Leicester Journal – Friday 10 February 1843
The President then called Mr. Raby to read bis paper “Secular Learning of the Anglo-Saxons.”
Mr. Raby opened his essay by stating that it was his purpose offer sketch of the proficiency attained in the several branches of pro lane learning by our Anglo Saxon ancestors during the first and most flourishing period of their dominion in England. “Our Saxon ancestors are those whose memories are most cherished in our popular sympathies: their stock we are proud to trace our purest descent —to their laws and institutions we turn when would explore the parent source of those of our day whose meridian perfection is peculiar national glory. Our great writers and orators aspire to fix for themselves the solidest fame are careful to endow their style with enduring strength from that “well of English undefiled,” which our chief critics tell us is the Saxon; but the era of which 1 now treat is especially dear to our historical renown. [continues]
1843. 25 February. Gettting ready to depart Leicester.
An advertisement for Richard’s early publications:
Leicestershire Mercury – Saturday 25 February 1843
A FEW Parting Observations on the Rev. J. Mursell’s Appendix.
by RICHARD RABY. Printed Waddington, High Street.
1843. 24th July. Dissolution of Partnership.
With Richard the Elder now dead the partnership seems to have been taken over by Elizabeth his wife and Richard the Younger but in 1843 this is now dissolved.
Birmingham Gazette – Monday 24 July 1843
NOTICES FROM THE LONDON GAZETTE.
July 15.—Elizabeth Raby, Richard Raby, and Thomas Podd Leicester, worsted-spinners and manufacturers.
1849. Richard is in Munich by this time.
Leicestershire Mercury – Saturday 26 May 1849. Advertisement.
Just Published, THE ENGLISH POPE, ADRIAN IV., Historical Sketch. RICHARD RABY, Munich, Price 3s., in 8vo, superfine paper, bound in cloth. London: Richardson and Son, 172, Fleet-street, and Derby.
The book is available on-line at the Gutenberg Project : Pope Adrian IV. An Historical Sketch
1855. Death of mother Elizabeth Walker in Munich and sister Eliza Raby in England.
Richard’s intellectual standing
Richard was well known in the English Catholic community still and was also teaching after his move to Germany. He published a number of books, mainly historical and religious and had supportive reviews. However, one critic stands out.
He was considered as tutor for Lord Acton but somewhat negatively dismissed by the later highly respected Catholic historian:
“While Acton was in Edinburgh, his applications to three Cambridge colleges were turned down because he was a Catholic. The idea of going to Germany was then discussed between his mother and Anna, Countess Arco, her Munich cousin. At first they thought of his living with a young Catholic Englishman, Richard Raby, son of a Leicester cloth manufacturer, who lived in Munich as a writer and tutor and took in young Englishmen on cultural tours. Acton was horrified by the idea; he did not care for Raby, and, what was worse, two of his fellow students at Dr. Logan’s whom he disliked would also be there….
…Acton pleaded with Lord Granville [step-father] to send him to Döllinger and not to Raby, ‘at most a moderately good master in classics, and a person in whose hands I would not willingly place the direction of my reading…'”
Source: “Lord Acton” By Roland Hill. pp.25-26.
1858 Letter from Lord Acton to Richard Simpson.
Lord Acton is not impressed with Richard Raby:
“1 October 1858, 16 Bruton St. Friday morning.
My dear Simpson,…
… I see by the Register that Raby makes more impression than some of your own articles. It is wonderful what nonsense people will bear in foreign history and politics.”
Simpson responds 15 Nov 1858 :
….There is a certain spirit in Raby that finds admirers – an unctuous assumption of right, Dominus vobiscum, Benedicte, Hosanna – that take all pious old women by the beard & hold them tight.”
Source: “The Correspondence of LORD ACTON and RICHARD SIMPSON” Altholz & McElrath, Cambridge University Press, 1971. p 84.
1881. Richard dies in Munich age 65 (b. 1816)
Nottingham Evening Post – Wednesday 24 August 1881
LITERARY AND ART NOTES.
Professor Richard Raby, who died Munich on August 3rd, in his 65th year, was one of the few Englishmen holding academical office in Germany. He was born at Leicester, and originally devoted himself to scientific studies, but the early death of his elder [sic, younger] brother obliged him to undertake the management of his father’s manufactory [sic], which had fallen into disorder. After the sale of the concern, Mr. Raby went to live Belgium, but about 1842 or 1843 went to Munich, where he lived until his death. He established a school, which was attended chiefly by English and Spanish youths, and he was afterwards called to a chair at the well known Royal Maximilianeum. He wrote a great deal for English serials, amongst others for the Roman Catholic “Rambler.” In 1849 he published Pope Adrian IV., an Historical Sketch,” and in 1866 appeared a second edition of Suso’s “Little Book of Eternal Wisdom.” A selection of readings in English prose and verse, for the higher classes schools, was published by him Freilburg in 1871.
Son to Richard Raby (elder) and Elizabeth Walker
A portrait of John passed through to Grace Lilian Hunt and then Margaret Kaveney.
The back of the portrait is inscribed “John Raby Took his Departure for Spain March 20 1836″.
None of the history so far recorded gives evidence for who John Raby is. However, the date of 1836 and destination Spain suggest that he joined the British (or Auxillary) Legion fighting in the Carlist wars in the Peninsular. This was not an official British army in that it was mostly comprised of volunteers.
Newspaper accounts of his untimely death in a riding accident on his return from Spain provide a wealth of information: that he was the younger brother of Richard Raby and had on October 1836 just turned 18. There was a coroners inquest into the circumstances of his death.
They tell of an otherwise unknown brother who was ill suffering in the latter stages of consumption.
1836. Enlist to the 8th Scottish Infantry 24 March and is wounded not long after.
RABY, Ensign, 8th Regt. 24th March 36— wounded 6th June 36- resigned 37.
Source: History of the British legion, and war in Spain Publ. in parts. Alexander Somerville – 1 January 1839. https://play.google.com/books/reader?id=feqoaaaaqaaj&printsec=frontcover&output=reader&authuser=0&hl=en_gb&pg=gbs.pa706
1837 February, father Richard dies.
1837 September. Dies, riding accident, Leicester.
There are very detailed newspaper reports concerning the death of John and the subsequent Coroner’s inquiry at the Red Cow. These also provide information about his character and family. Link to newspaper reports following the Coroner’s inquest.
Leicestershire Mercury – Saturday 09 September 1837
An anonymous piece of poetry is published in the Leicestershire Mercury.
LINES WRITTEN THE DEATH OF Mr. JOHN RABY.
Come! let the tear of sympathy shed
For one who now lies number’d with the dead;
Who, when the morning sun shed forth its ray,
In health and spirits, rose to spend the day
In spreading joy around — on every side—
In which, his youthful spirits took a pride.
Pleased with the strength to which he had resource,
Upon his horse pursued his joyous course.
Ere night o’er earth her sable mantle spread.
His strength has vanish’d, and his soul has fled.
Where death and sorrow never more shall reign,
Where there are no more tears, and no more pain.
How sad his end! how true doth it appear,
That man can never tell when death is near.
Behold the contrast! See the awful change,
Which death hath made. He now no more can range
Where pleasure on this joyous earth is found,
And nature spreads her beauties all around.
The teeth are clenched; the tongue lies dumb between,
And death spread o’er the countenance is seen.
May mourning friends and near relations find
That comfort which religion yields the mind.
Amid their sorrow may their souls adore
The God of him who breathes the air no more.
Let friendly feeling try to sooth the pain.
Which in a mother’s heart must still remain.
Oh! God of mercy! from whom blessings flow,
Console her mournful spirits, calm her woe ;
In mercy wipe her flowing tears away,
Teach her from the heart to say
“It is thy will, O! Lord, and be it done,
I, to thy mercy, now resign my son.”
Other death notices announcing the John’s death:
Leicester Chronicle – Saturday 09 September 1837
On Tuesday, in the 19th year of his age, John, second son of the late Richard Raby, Esq. of Bath-lane, worsted-spinner. The circumstances attendant upon the death of the deceased ate re-corded in a preceding page.
Coventry Herald – Friday 15 September 1837
On the 5th inst., aged 19, (in consequence of being thrown from his horse,) Mr. John Raby, second son of the late Mr. Richard Raby, of Leicester.